The city of Kos was recognized as an administrative center, near the port and the market zone great administrative buildings and sanctuaries were built. It had an image of a traditional market with streets, shops, workshops and altars that compose the 'traditional' image of an ancient market.
The structure of the ancient market consists of three main galleries, East, West and North, which in their center met in a large inner courtyard. The North Gallery connected the market with the city walls, while the other two had various shops that served the daily needs of the citizens.
The construction phases differ according to the different materials used each time. The earthquake of the 6th or 5th c. BC left no trace in the building history of the city. In 366 BC. and throughout the 3rd century, the buildings were made of almond stone (a type of limestone) and a greenish porphyry for the foundation. Marble is rarer. In the next period, marble is widely used. At this time (2nd century BC) the monumental building complexes that gave a majestic look to the city are being built.The reconstruction that followed the earthquake of 142 AD. (under Emperor Antoninus of Eusebius) changed the face of the city. In the buildings, cast masonry was used, while during this period the thermos (hot springs), the theater, the stadium are being constructed and the market and the building blocks are being rebuilt.
The earthquake of 469 AD was crucial, (during the reign of Emperor Leo I) it was the trigger for the end of the ancient city and the beginning of the early Christian period. The Greek Archaeological Service, with its excavation on the south side, set the length of the building at about 300 meters. East of the ancient market, the excavations revealed part of the city's road plan (hippodameion) with wide roads (4 to 6 meters) and 4 building islands with houses and shops.Also, the visitor can see part of the city's fortification, the remains of the sanctuaries of Aphrodite and Hercules, building islands with the remains of private houses, but also part of the ancient port of the city.Finally, a large part of the Ancient Kos market is buried under the modern city of Kos.
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